Who Is Muhammad (pbuh)?
Muhammad, which literally means “praised” is the name of the great prophet of Islam, the last prophet of the Almighty God.
His father was called Abdullah and his mother Aminah. He was from Banu-Hashem family, which was one of the most noble Arab families, of the Tribe of Quraysh. He was born on the seventeenth or twelfth of Rabi al-Avval, 53 BH- fifty three years before the beginning of the Hegira calendar- (570 AD) in Mecca in the Hijaz.
The prophet Muhammad (pbuh) had four daughters and four sons who died during their father’s lifetime, but one whose name was Fatimah (a.s), who lived after her father for a short while.
The prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was chosen as a prophet of Allah on the 27th of Rajab, when he was forty and started to receive the Divine Revelation by his holy heart, a man who spent all of his youth in offering prayers and serving as a God’s slave. Hara cave in a mountain around Mecca was his shelter for his fondness for Allah.
Always and Amongst all of the people, he was famous for being righteous, truthful, and pure in a way that he was titled “Amin” meaning reliable.
When he started his prophetic mission, he was ordered to call people to Islam secretly for three years. He was then ordered to disclose his invitation. The people who were invited first in his public invitation were his own relatives. Then he started to invite all the people in Mecca publicly.
As a natural result, he encountered severe disagreement from idol-worshippers and tolerated much harassment and difficulties. The circumstance for him and his followers became so hard and unpleasant that they decided to emigrate. Eventually, after thirteen years of their hard effort in Mecca, they emigrated to another city called Yathrib, which its name was changed to “Medina al-Alrasul”, which means "the city of the prophet", after this migration. This journey is called “Hijrah” meaning emigration.
One of the most important events in the Islamic history is this emigration, which is the beginning of the Islamic calendar as well.
Finally, the great prophet of Islam, who was the bearer of the message of kindness, mercy, and love passed away after living in Medina for ten years when he was 63. His worldly life ended while leaving behind an Islamic rule with Medina as its capital, a rule which was ruling over all of the Hijaz.
The prophet Muhammad (pbuh), according to the Divine Order specified his successors (caliphs) in numerous and various situations. He named Ali ibn Abu-Talib (a.s) as his first successor, the very first Imam of the Shiites.
 Note that amongst Muslims, the migration of the prophet Muhammad (pbuh) from Mecca to Medina is the start point of the Islamic calendar, which is called the Hegira Calendar because it is derived from the word “hijrah” meaning emigration.